Legal Memorandum: Elements of a Civil Conspiracy Claim

Issue: Under Alabama law, what are the elements of a claim for civil conspiracy?

Area of Law: Business Organizations & Contracts
Keywords: Civil conspiracy; Unlawful intent
Jurisdiction: Alabama
Cited Cases: 110 A. 265; 282 A.2d 335; 181 A. 583; 412 A.2d 466; 320 Pa. 103
Cited Statutes: None
Date: 07/01/2007



To prove a claim for civil conspiracy, the plaintiff must show that two or more persons combined or agreed with intent to do an unlawful act, or to do an otherwise lawful act by unlawful means.  See Thompson Coal Co. v. Pike Coal Co., 488 Pa. 198, 211, 412 A.2d 466 (1979) (citing Landau v. W. Pa. Nat’l Bank, 282 A.2d 335 (1971)). Proof of malice, i.e., an intent to injure, is essential in proving a conspiracy.  Id., 488 Pa. at 211 (citing Miller v. Post Publ. Co., 110 A. 265 (1920)).  This unlawful intent must be absent justification.  Id. (citing Rosenblum v. Rosenblum, 320 Pa. 103, 108-09, 181 A. 583, 585 (1935)).


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